International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution
Coverage: 1923-1941 (Vols. I-XIX) & 1962-2023 (Vols. 1-61)
ISSN 0323-1119 (Print)
ISSN 2570-9127 (Online)
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'Monigal K, Usik VI, Koulakovskaya L, Gerasimenko NP, 2006: The Beginning of the Upper Paleolithic in Transcarpathia, Ukraine. Anthropologie (Brno) 44, 1: 61-74'.
Forming the crossroad between western and eastern Europe, the Carpathian Mountains support a wealth of natural diversity otherwise unparalleled in Europe and a rich cultural heritage reflecting millennia of human settlement. Yet relatively little is known of the Paleolithic settlement of Transcarpathian Ukraine, despite the vast potential the area holds for prehistoric research. At present, there are three known Early Upper Paleolithic assemblages in Transcarpathia: Korolevo II level II and Korolevo I level Ia, both discovered at the end of the 1970s, and Sokirnitsa IA level 3, discovered in 2000. Korolevo II/II is technologically Upper Paleolithic with blade production and the use of crested blades for the preparation of the core, along with archaic techniques of platform faceting and hard hammer percussion. Typologically, both Middle and Upper Paleolithic tools appear. This assemblage, furthermore, has been demonstrably linked to earlier occupations at Korolevo, suggesting that this was an indigenous transition, a view supported by other transitional assemblages from neighbouring regions. Korolevo I/Ia and Sokirnitsa IA/3, in both technological and typological aspects, show a refinement of lithic reduction strategies and tool manufacture that is fully Upper Paleolithic in character. All three Transcarpathian assemblages are dated ca 39,000 BP and indicate that the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic in this region is connected with OIS 3. In none of the cases do Aurignacian elements appear, suggesting that the tempo and nature of the transition from the Middle Paleolithic to the Upper Paleolithic was different from that of western Europe.
Early Upper Paleolithic - Aurignacian - Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition - Levallois technology - Blade technology - Ukraine

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