International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution
Coverage: 1923-1941 (Vols. I-XIX) & 1962-2021 (Vols. 1-59)
ISSN 0323-1119 (Print)
ISSN 2570-9127 (Online)
Special Issue dedicated to the memory of Vladimír Novotný is in preparation.

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'Butovskaya ML, 2000: The Evolution of Human Behaviour: The Relationship the Biological and the Social. Anthropologie (Brno) 38, 2: 169-180'.
Studies in human evolution, human and non-human primate ethology, behavioural genetics, and neurophysiology ultimately raise the question ofman's place in the animal world and his uniqueness. The present paper, based on recent primatological evidence, attempts to demonstrate that many criteria which the anthropologists have traditionally used to prove man's uniqueness can no longer be regarded as true distinctions since most of them are present in apes. The following conclusions were done: 1. Human cultures and those of the chimpanzees are homologous despite the fact that the former are much more complex and variable. The symbolic capacity is man's unique attribute; 2. At present, there are many reliable facts suggesting that representatives of at least one ape species, the chimpanzee, are capable of active learning, imitation, and cultural changes following the accumulation of knowledge under natural conditions; 3. Apes (chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas) can operate symbols and even create new ones by combining previously known concepts. Captive chimpanzees can spontaneously transmit their linguistic skills to other group members. There is no reliable evidence suggestive of any symbolic information exchange among the apes in the wild; 4. Life histories are highly relevant for understanding behavioural differences between chimpanzees and man. Prolonged childhood and a longer total lifespan resulted in the emergence of unique behavioural strategies, including a longer period of learning, and institutionalized help to mothers; 5. Socioecological data are important for the interpretation of similarities and differences in human and non-human primates. Following certain ecological specialization, human ancestors developed adaptations such as larger group size, and cooperation both within and between groups. Ways and models of hominid's social structure group formation could have been similar to those demonstrated for non-human primate species.
Evolution - Behaviour - Culture - Language - Tool-using

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