International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution
Coverage: 1923-1941 (Vols. I-XIX) & 1962-2023 (Vols. 1-61)
ISSN 0323-1119 (Print)
ISSN 2570-9127 (Online)
Journal Impact Factor 0.2
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'Capasso L, Di Tota G, 1998: Fifth Toe Distal Inter-Phalangeous Synostosis: Paleopathological Description and Possible Evolutionary Significance. Anthropologie (Brno) 36, 3: 231-233'.
The authors examine the gross pathology and the radiographic aspect of a distal inter-phalangeous synostosis of the fifth toe from archaeological excavation of an early Middle Age cemetery in Central Italy (Teramo-Sant'Anna, Abruzzo, VIIth century A.D.). They suggest that this type of congenital synostosis might be of evolutionary significance. In fact, human toes might be considered as vestigial organs, because they have undergone a remarkable reduction in length during the evolution of our species, perhaps in connection with the acquisition of the erect posture and, more recently, with the regular use of footwear.
Congenital synostosis - Fifth toe - Vestigial organs - Effects of the shoes

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