International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution
Coverage: 1923-1941 (Vols. I-XIX) & 1962-2023 (Vols. 1-61)
ISSN 0323-1119 (Print)
ISSN 2570-9127 (Online)
Journal Impact Factor 0.2
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'Vančata V, 1996: Major Patterns of Early Hominid Evolution: Body Size, Proportions, Encephalization and Sexual Dimorphism. Anthropologie (Brno) 34, 1-2: 11-25'.
Body size in hominids is best described by body mass, a general ecological parameter, body height as a parameter of body linearity, and their relations. Any precise estimate of those parameters in fossil primates is almost impossible and we can never be sure about the preciseness of the estimate. Estimates of body mass and height and their relations can be used as an important ecological and evolutionary information. It is absolutely necessary, however, to keep consistent comparability of the data. The relative size of body and brain, body shape and limb proportions are other very important ecological parameters. Such data allow for a relatively precise reconstruction of many ecological behavioural and life history parameters in the early hominid evolution. We have studied postcranial skeletons of 83 early hominids to reconstruct their body height, body mass and limb proportions. About 800 higher primate femora, tibiae, humeri and radii were analysed as a comparative sample. The lengths of the femur, tibia, humerus and radius were reconstructed (or taken from literature) or estimated by regression. We have revised 60 regression equations for stature estimates based on femoral length and 60 for the body mass estimates. The femoral head diameter, subtrochanteric and distal femoral product, proximal tibial and distal tibial products gave the most precise estimates of body mass. The stature in A. afarensis group is of about 139 cm and body mass is 44 kg. The stature in A. africanus is of 132 cm and body mass is 37 kg. The stature in A. robustus/boisei has been estimated at about 132 cm and body mass about 39 kg. The body height of Homo habilis was about 154 cm and body mass about 51 kg. The mean values for Homo erectus are about 170 cm and 60 kg. The results show a very high sexual dimorphism in A. afarensis and H. habilis groups. The A. robustus/boisei group has robust crania only, but gracile postcrania and small body size.
(Not complete abstract)
Early hominids - Australopithecus - Homo - Apes - Evolution - Ecology - Body height - Body mass - Body size - Limb proportions - Encephalization quotient

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