International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution
Coverage: 1923-1941 (Vols. I-XIX) & 1962-2023 (Vols. 1-61)
ISSN 0323-1119 (Print)
ISSN 2570-9127 (Online)
Journal Impact Factor 0.2
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'Schwartz JH, Tattersall I, 1996: Toward Distinguishing Homo neanderthalensis from Homo sapiens, and Vice Versa. Anthropologie (Brno) 34, 1-2: 79-88'.
Here, we 1) point out that one of the major features used to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans (the prominence of the occipitomastoid crest) is not valid, 2) provide comparative data indicating that Homo sapiens (not Neanderthals) possesses the derived character states of the vaginal and styloid processes, 3) demonstrate that Neanderthals have a novel configuration of the anterior squamosal, while H. sapiens is autapomorphic in lacking distinction between infratemporal and temporal fossae, and 4) argue that synapomorphy between Neanderthals and H. sapiens exists in the presence in juveniles of a prominent, domed arcuate eminence. The nature of similarity and difference between mid-late Pleistocene and recent hominids still needs clarification.
Neanderthal - Homo sapiens - Squamosal - Alisphenoid - Infratemporal and temporal fossae - Petrosal - Vaginal - Styloid and mastoid processes - Stylomastoid foramen

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