International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution
Coverage: 1923-1941 (Vols. I-XIX) & 1962-2022 (Vols. 1-60)
ISSN 0323-1119 (Print)
ISSN 2570-9127 (Online)
Special Issue focused on the paleoethnology / ethnoarchaeology, invited Guest Editor Professor Jiří Svoboda is in preparation.

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'Kobyliansky E, Karasik D, Vainder M, Pavlovsky OM, Livshits G, 1996: Comparative Analysis of Roentgenologic Methods for Age Evaluation Using Hand Bones. Anthropologie (Brno) 34, 3: 277-297'.
The use of bone roentgenology for age estimation is convenient inasmuch as it is a comparatively economical, sufficiently precise and technically uncomplicated method. It is also a non-invasive method, in particular when peripheric structures like hand bones are assessed, which is important in investigations of living subjects. The primary aim of the present study was to choose the most reliable method of age evaluation out of several roentgenologic methods using hand bones. Two different populations have been included in the present study: a) Israelis (365 cadavers, the mean age 46.5 years (S.D. = 21.2 years) for males, and 56.5 (S.D. = 21.5) years for females), and b) Turkmenians (643 living subjects, the mean age 49 years (S.D. = 17.1 years) for males, and 47.9 (S.D. = 14.6) years for females). Standard posteroanterior radiograms ofboth hands were performed for all subjects, to assess: a) bone mineral density (BMD) on the distal and the middle phalanges of the IIIrd finger, b) osseometric indices (OSM) on the II-Vth metacarpal bones, and 3) an osseographic score (OSS) which recorded the occurrence ofthe following: (a) osteophytes and exostoses, (b) osteoporosis, (c) osteosclerosis, and (d) non-traumatic articular deformities, on the phalanges of the II- Vth fingers. All measurements were taken on both hands and pulled together after respective standardization. The study investigated ethnic differences in bone age measurements and their usefulness in chronological age prediction. Multiple regression analysis was employed in order to explore the possibility of predicting chronological age of an individual by OSS, OSM and BMD. The equations we elaborated led to polynomial functions, showing that OSS and its power functions are stronger predictor variables of an individual's age. The cubed regression of OSS showed the highest values (R = 0.930-0.936 in Israelis and R = 0.896-0.908 in Turkmenians, p less than 0.001). The error of age prediction of most equations (approximately ± 7-10 years) compares favourably with current methods of age prediction. Moreover, these equations allow to extend the upper limit of age estimation to beyond 70 years, when gross skeletal changes that are currently in use become relatively useless.
Bone aging - Roentgenography - Age evaluation - Human identification - Bone mineral density - Israel - Turkmenia

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