International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution
Coverage: 1923-1941 (Vols. I-XIX) & 1962-2021 (Vols. 1-59)
ISSN 0323-1119 (Print)
ISSN 2570-9127 (Online)
Special Issue dedicated to the memory of Vladimír Novotný is in preparation.

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'Zlámalová H, Vančata V, Jebavý L, Vančatová M, 1995: Ontogeny and Growth of Higher Primates - A Somatometric Approach. Anthropologie (Brno) 33, 1-2: 39-46'.
The studies on non-human primate growth and somatic development are still relatively rare, and there is no comprehensive longitudinal study. The methodical problems in this type ofprimate research seems to be the most important reasonfor this. Despite the effort to integrate research into anthropology and primatology, anthropological and primatological research is not suficiently interconnected. The persistence of marked differences in methods and methodology in both disciplines of ontogenetic research is probably the cause of this. Numerous anthropological, biomedical and evolutionary studies have compared man and primates, including their ontogeny. However, there is no consistent framework for such comparative studies. Both human and non-human primate ontogeny have numerous specific as well as common features, but they are not defined by comparable quantitative data. The research project entitled "Complex study of postnatal ontogeny of higher primates —b asic adaptive processes, social structure, and sexual dimorphism ", co-ordinated by VåclavV andata( GrantAgency of the Czech Republic —g rant project No. 20693/ 1029), is the first part of a longitudinal study of higher primate ontogeny which should yield representative data on primate ontogeny. The main subject of the study is a captive group ofMacaca mulatta living in the Primate Center of VÜFB Konårovice. Currently, there is a population of 169 macaques living in 8 groups with a semi-natural (aged) multimale social structure. New groups are created after weaning at approx. 4—8m onths of life. Three groups of macaques (73 individuals) have been included in the longitudinal complex study to date. The measuring is done by Helena Zlämalovå, who is the author ofa modification of the standard anthropometric proceduresfor primates. Some modifications are very specific, and the technique of measuring is different from that of analogical anthropometric measurements in man. Standardisation of the position of the body and individual segments was thefirst and main task of using somatometry methods in primates. We have measured 48 metrical traits: body mass, body height, sitting height, 9 dimensions of the head, and 15 traits of the upper limbs, 12 of the lower limbs and 9 of the trunk. Body height has never been measured in non-humanp rimates, but is very importantf or the description of the linearity of the primate body and alsofor comparison of the ontogeny of non-human primates and man. The cross-sectional shape of the chest has been described by kyrtometry. This study should create a basicframeworkforfuture comparative studies of monkeys and man. The main goal of this contribution is to demonstrate the methods and their use in practice, and 0 to indicate thefuture prospects of somatometry in research into primate ontogeny. Thefirst complete results of a pilot study on the somatic development of rhesus macaques up to the maturation period are analysed. At present we have suficiént data from a longitudinal study of three groups of Macaca mulatta, which enable us to describe the somatic development of macaques up to three years of age. We can analyse not only the development of body size but also of individual body segments. Thefirst results of an analysis of the ontogeny of the chest crossection will be presented. One Of the most important tasks of the pilot study, the application of the modified anthropometric method in primate research, has been fulfilled: modified somatometry of macaques seems to have great value for the description of growth and sexual differentiation. The sample group, measured up to 40 months of age, proves the methods to be reliable and confidently precise. Some specific measurements like body height appear to be very important for comparative studies of the ontogeny of body size and proportions in man and non-human primates. The period ofmeasurement seems to be suncient and representative.
Ontogeny - Growth - Somatometry - Macaca mulatta - Longitudinal study

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