International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution
Coverage: 1923-1941 (Vols. I-XIX) & 1962-2023 (Vols. 1-61)
ISSN 0323-1119 (Print)
ISSN 2570-9127 (Online)
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'Cyrek K, Sudoł M, Czyżewski L, 2016: The record of changes in the Middle Palaeolithic Settlement zone of the Biśnik Cave. Anthropologie (Brno) 54, 1: 5-20'.
The Biśnik Cave, situated in the region of the Niegowonice-Smoleń Range in the middle part of the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland is an example of a cave site with preserved multi-level sequences of a Middle-Palaeolithic settlement. The complex structure of the Biśnik Cave currently consists of: the main chamber, a side chamber, a side shelter, the area under the overhang, at least three entrances and the presence of flint artefacts,hearths and animal bones of post-consumption character in almost all layers. The structure enabled the survey of changes in the location of the cave habitation during the Middle and Upper Pleistocene. In the oldest layers 19abcd, 19 and 18 the clusters of artefacts and hearths in the main chamber were mostly located in its far end and near the fossil entrance E3. The subsequent layers underwent gradual changes in the location of traces of human habitation at the cave. In layers 15–14, the latter are present near the currently used entrance to the main chamber E1, which began to be used then and in the area under the overhang. During the deposition of layers 13 and 12, the area under the overhang and the passage from the side shelter to the side chamber were intensively used. At the same time the main chamber was uninhabited. Between layers 11–5 traces of habitation appear in the main chamber. Their size indicates intensive settlement in this part of the cave. The area under the overhang was also intensively used. Hearths and flint artefacts in this place were situated at a considerable distance from the entrance to the main chamber of the cave (E1). It seems that the reason for varied location of hearths and campsites could have resulted from the altering morphology of the cave and the accompanying shelters, which in turn affected their availability resulting from different climatic processes.
Middle Palaeolithic – Settlement area – Biśnik Cave

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