International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution
Coverage: 1923-1941 (Vols. I-XIX) & 1962-2023 (Vols. 1-61)
ISSN 0323-1119 (Print)
ISSN 2570-9127 (Online)
Journal Impact Factor 0.2
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'Vančata V, 2003: Sexual Dimorphism in Body Size and Shape in Pavlovian Upper Paleolithic Group: A Population Approach. Anthropologie (Brno) 41, 3: 213-240'.
Pavlovian skeletal remains (DV 3, 13 to 16 and Pavlov 1) represent one of the largest and best preserved Upper Paleolithic human samples, permitting analysis of their body size, body shape and sexual dimorphism. To assess these, we have estimated stature, body mass, skeletal ponderal indexes plus epiphyseal and diaphyseal robusticity and shape from their long bones for these individuals and other earlier Upper Paleolithic human remains. Stature was computed as a mean value of 8 most reliable equations using femoral (6 equations) and humeral (2 equations) lengths only. Body mass was estimated on the basis of the femoral head, subtrochanteric, distal femoral, proximal and distal tibial products, and as a function of body height. BMI and Rohrer's indexes expressing general shape of the body were computed. The first step was the characterization of the Pavlovian sample using these parameters. Unfortunately, there are four undoubtedly male skeletons (DV 13, DV 14, DV 16 and Pavlov 1), one clearly female skeleton (DV 3) and one pathological individual of uncertain sex (DV 15). The males are relatively tall and slim. DV 3 and 15 are significantly smaller. DV 3 is relatively gracile. DV 15 is significantly more robust than the males. Despite many pathological features DV 15 is remarkably similar to the Sungir 3 girl which supports a female diagnosis of this pathological individual. To assess sexual dimorphism we compared the Pavlovian remains with the Pøedmostí sample. Pøedmostí males are smaller and more gracile. Both DV 3 and DV 15 do not differ significantly from the Pøedmostí females. However, the Pøedmostí females are relatively gracile but they are significantly more robust in comparison with the Pøedmostí males. Similarly, as in the Pavlovian sample, there is one unusually slim female (late adolescent Pøedmostí 5). To assess variability in body size and shape of the Moravian Gravettian populations, compared the Central European and Mediterranean Gravettian samples. The Mediterranean Upper Paleolithic populations were probably taller and somewhat more robust but the direction of sexual dimorphism is the same. There are also hyper-robust females and one very slim female in the Mediterranean sample. The specific character of sexual dimorphism, i. e. small robust and hyper-robust females, was probably caused by the strong sexual selection of the somatotype. One model to explain the presence of slim females and the origin of the unusual robusticity can be based on our study of ontogeny of macaques and apes, in which the timing and rate of the adolescent growth spurt can have profound effects on body build. Such variance in the adolescent spurt in females could cause the specific body built in these Upper Paleolithic females.
Upper Paleolithic - Gravettian - Homo sapiens - Pavlovian Hills - Pøedmostí - Body height - Body mass - Body shape - Sexual dimorphism - Central Europe - Mediterranean

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