International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution
Coverage: 1923-1941 (Vols. I-XIX) & 1962-2023 (Vols. 1-61)
ISSN 0323-1119 (Print)
ISSN 2570-9127 (Online)
Journal Impact Factor 0.2
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'Vančatová M, Vančata V, 2021: The simple objects place in enclosure for gorillas initiate rare or new behavioural patterns – implications for the origin of hominine tool behaviour. Anthropologie (Brno) 59, 1: 45-54'.
Our results demonstrate that very simple objects for environmental enrichment can initiate more types of behaviour in the group of gorillas or provoke the new or innovative behavioural patterns. There are three types of objects: plastic boxes and wooden baskets; wooden shaving; long tools, branches and toys. We observed the group of gorillas in Prague Zoo (2009–2018). All animals use these three types of objects daily and include them in the different types of behaviour (play, agonistic, sexual, social, comfort). Boxes and baskets used as a step-stools or seats, weapons, drums as drummers and for the increase effects during chest beating, for the sweeping garbage. Baskets are used for hiding. Wooden shaving used as a pads, making of a primitive slippers (and all youngsters learn this behaviour from their mother), as a neck protectors, as a cushion, use to a clean of the body, creating "Islands" during traveling through the new substrate place. Blocking the photocell on drinking by the wooden shaving enable the use water all the time. After making of primitive slippers gorillas used them for the moving on the wet or cold floor. Our study proves that gorillas are able sophisticated tool behaviour. They do not show much tool modifications, however, the degree in using innovations and active tool using is relatively very high. Some features of their tool activities indicate the origin of traditions, like using of plastic boxes or wooden-shaving slippers. These results show that environmental enrichment could reveal mechanisms of formation of early hominine tool behaviour and relations of using tools to the development of early hominine cognitive abilities.
Gorilla – Tool behaviour – Environmental enrichment

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