International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution
Coverage: 1923-1941 (Vols. I-XIX) & 1962-2023 (Vols. 1-61)
ISSN 0323-1119 (Print)
ISSN 2570-9127 (Online)
Journal Impact Factor 0.2
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'Dočkalová M, Čižmář Z, 2008: Neolithic settlement burials of adult and juvenile individuals in Moravia, Czech Republic. Anthropologie (Brno) 46, 1: 37-76'.
Numerous finds of skeletal remains from Neolithic settlements testify to different modes of burials and associated rituals. From the milieu of three Neolithic cultures in Moravia one could evaluate 42 individuals of the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK, 5700.4900 BC), 12 individuals of the Stroked Pottery Culture (STK, 4900.4700 BC) and 20 individuals of the Moravian Painted Pottery Culture (LgK, 4700.4000 BC). The first analysis of funerary customs, which was focused on settlement burials of children, proved that Neolithic burials conform to stable rules with regard to burial rite (Dočkalová, Čižmář 2007). This paper presents a review of settlement burials in 74 adult and juvenile individuals from 34 sites (Figure 1, Table 1). It shows the approach of prehistoric society to burial customs in various Neolithic cultures, comprising both regular burials in settlement features and cases of non-standard manipulation with human skeletons and partial skeletal remains. The skeletal material studied had been anthropologically analysed whereby one could identify 33 females, 20 males, 12 juveniles and 9 undetermined individuals. In general, the percentage of females was higher than that of males, and the most adults were aged 20.29. The analysis of skeletal material proved in 27 individuals permanent changes in humeri and femurs due to hard physical load, but also displays of repeated working activity (osteophytes on finger phalanges), and the use of teeth as a working tool. The range of detected alterations and damages was fully individual; the changes proceeded gradually at the level of individuals. At the population level one could record in both sexes' differences in the body height, which was in all cultural periods higher in males than in females, however, a gradually diminishing average body height in the course of time (LBK to LgK) was detected. Social differentiation of the society caused a transformation of social structure; the adaptation to new living conditions in the first farmers was associated with construction of cultic areas, the displays of spiritual culture and burial rituals, which were typical of the New Stone Age population.
Czech Republic - Moravia - Neolithic burials - Settlement burials - Anthropological characteristics - Morphological aspects

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