International Journal of Human Diversity and Evolution
Coverage: 1923-1941 (Vols. I-XIX) & 1962-2021 (Vols. 1-59)
ISSN 0323-1119 (Print)
ISSN 2570-9127 (Online)
Special Issue dedicated to the memory of Vladimír Novotný is in preparation.

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'Herrmann J, 1983: Tool-Making and First Stages of Labour-Factors and the Results of Human Evolution. Anthropologie (Brno) 21, 1: 7-17'.
The so far insufficient fossil record of human ancestors of the period of anthropogenesis and hence the high degree of subjectivity in the views of various authors is emphasized. The reductionist approach of non-Marxist authors overestimating continuity and denying the natural qualitative difference between man and animals is criticized. The process of anthropogenesis which started with beginnings of la¬bour is divided into the following four main periods: 1. The biological branching of the human species (the HD-epoch) — 1.8 to 0.8 million years ago. It is characterized by transition to regular production of tools (artifacts), the growth of brain to about 775 ccm and the beginnings of sensory thinking and sound com¬munication (semi-human form, the ape-man). Period of Homo habilis. 2. The period of anthroposociogenesis (800,000 to 350,000 years). The tool making became dominant. Fire was used and labour began to be a process. The brain increased to more than 1000 ccm. Spreading to new climatic regions. Period of Homo erectus. 3. The socio-economic formation. 350,000 to 40,000 years. Social cooperation and a new type of thinking: Differentiation of the working process. Bone carvings and tooth amulets. The development of so¬cial forms of life and social consciousness. Marked increase in volume of the brain. The Neanderthal man period. 4. The ancient society — 40,000 to 20,000 years. The necessity of cooperation of various disciplines of both natural and social science is emphasized.
Anthropogenesis - Anthroposociogenesis - Labour - Tool making - Brain growth - Thinking - Speech - Subhuman phase - Homo habilis - Homo erectus - Neanderthal man

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